Paris, 1867 – The Rouquayrol-Denayrouze Swiss made dive watch diving equipment wins a gold medal at the Universal exhibition. Among the visitors of the worldwide exhibition changed into Jules Verne. A few months later, he integrated this diving apparatus in his novel 20000 Leagues Under The Sea, as part of the system of the Nautilus divers. At that point, watches had been included in opposition to shocks, dirt or moisture through being located in the breast pocket of jackets. However, in the past due 19th century, watches began to be worn at the wrist, basically for military use (earlier than the style spread). Strapped to the arm, watches became uncovered to all manner of hazards. The need for hermetically sealed watches, resistant to the ingress of dust and water, have become a necessity, for that reason rushing the evolution of the waterproof watch. Later, in 1942/1943, Emile Gagnan and Jacques-Yves Cousteau worked at the Aqualung, the primary Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (a.Ok.A. SCUBA), to reach worldwide industrial achievement. The military and expert diving wishes, coupled with the growing recognition of Scuba diving, made the significance of robust and truthful underwater contraptions paramount. A few years later, the contemporary dive watches were born…
TIMELINE – THE EVOLUTION OF DIVE WATCHES
The story of waterproof watches is an extended evolution, which genuinely started within the late 19th century. If the need to guard the mechanisms has constantly been obvious, watchmakers then invented and perfected a spread of solutions to enhance susceptible points (bezels, backs, crowns/stems, glasses, gaskets, outside instances…) through which dirt and water ought to find their manner in the watches, causing dials and movements to rust. In particular, several innovations made their apparition – like screwed backs and bezels, shielding screwed caps for the crown or screw-down crowns. At the start of the 20th century, the appearance of the wristwatch and the watches produced for World War 1 could best speed up the method. While it is impossible to list all improvements and designs which have been engineered, the subsequent pix serve the cause of illustrating a number of the evolutions over time.
Among the early twentieth century tendencies of dustproof and waterproof watches, Rolex unveiled in 1926 the now-iconic “Oyster”, with a hermetically sealed case to defend its motion. A 12 months later, Hans Wilsdorf, founding father of Rolex, used Mercedes Gleitze, the primary British ladies to swim across the Channel, as a tester. In a new try and swim between France and England, Gleitze was sporting around her neck an Oyster, proving that no moisture had penetrated throughout hours of submersion
Hamilton Khaki Navy Frogman – Canteen NCDU
The Hamilton Khaki Navy “Frogman” features a screw cap over its crown. This cap, which turned into connected to the case with a brief chain, prevents water from coming into the watch and continues it water resistant. The “Frogman” is a super instance of the more than one watches designed for army functions and active carrier on land and water. Hamilton water resistant watches have been furnished to NCDUs (Naval Combat Demolition Units), created in 1943.
Drawings from the 1950s for the patented Panerai crown defensive bridge, a signature characteristic for the Italian brand and its now iconic Luminor line. The watch name is hooked up to a self-luminous substance based totally on tritium, Luminor, that later outdated radium, on the way to supply excessive visibility to the dials of the logo’s devices.
The first contemporary dive watches regarded in the early Fifties with the Blancpain Fifty Fathoms, the Zodiac Sea Wolf or the Rolex Submariner. The Blancpain Fifty Fathoms changed into designed by means of Jacques Fiechter, It changed into later adopted (with the addition of magnetic protecting) by French elite combat frogmen. The watch became a general and nevertheless features all attributes of cutting-edge dive watches (rotating bezel with 60-minute scale, excessive water resistance, clean luminescent markings…). As indicated by using its call, it became water-resistant as much as 50 fathoms, which is about ninety one.45 meters or 300ft.
A present day model of the Omega Seamaster Ploprof (for “PLOngeur PROFessionnel”, or expert diver in English)
The Ploprof become developed together with Comex within the overdue Nineteen Sixties (industrial release in 1971 / 1972) for saturation diving and expert dive use (see the records of the watch right here). Among its precise characteristics is its bezel lock device. The bidirectional bezel can simplest be grew to become at the same time as urgent on the purple pusher. While the original Ploprof helium-tight monobloc case was initially examined to 60ATM (600m), the modern Seamaster Ploprof is certified water-resistant to 1200m (and it functions a helium escape valve).
THE CONTEMPORARY STANDARDS FOR MECHANICAL DIVE WATCHES
A present day dive watch must be designed and synthetic according with the ISO 6425 widespread. The ISO 6425 International Standard specifies the requirements and test methods for dive watches (consisting of mixed-fuel diving). Such timekeepers ought to withstand diving in water in depths of at the least 100m and appreciate some of different requirements amongst which:
Featuring a time preselecting device, i.E. A rotating bezel with markings at the least every 5 minutes
Adequate readability at 25cm in general darkness
The indication that the watch is running, in standard, a 2nd hand with a luminescent tip
Magnetic, shock, thermal surprise and saltwater resistance
Rolex water-proof take a look at
Modern assessments at Rolex these days. Every dive watch is tested in water to pressures often superior that found on the depth to which it’s miles assured and as a minimum 100m of water pressure to be formally labelled as a dive watch.
ROTATING BEZEL GRADUATION
Among the dangers confronted through divers once they cross underwater is decompression. The gasoline dissolved into tissues underneath pressure at some stage in the dive paperwork bubbles, in case the ascent (and decompression) is carried out too fast to allow secure elimination of the fuel, that could motive critical injuries. Divers respiration gasoline want to ascend at a certain price determined by means of their publicity to strain and gasoline in use. There is a large variety of options in decompression practices, as an instance, decompression can be non-stop or staged with stops at ordinary intensity intervals. Rotating bezels are used to degree the overall dive time and the decompression stops throughout the ascent. Rotating bezels are commonly unidirectional to permit the bezel to show handiest counterclockwise: if the bezel is circled via inadvertence it is able to best show a ‘safe’ longer elapsed time. The pointer marking the ‘0’ position shall be distinguished and noticeably seen. If